Gosay Theory of Homo sapiens Architecture

Hypothesis: The human Brain/Mind is the Operating System and the Pheripherals like the data inputs are like the Human organs such as eye, limbs, lungs..etc. Like In the Computer/System the Hardware installs its software in the form of firmware or Device Driver, the human organs are designed to interact with the human brain by the similar mechanism. The Functionality of the Human brain or its capabilities is all simmilar to that of the utility softwares in a computer system.

Speculation: Is the Eye designed to work with brain, or the brain designed to learn the organ to how to use it?
Speculation: if either of the speculation is true, is this natural selection of the organs? to become a species? is there a pattern?
Speculation: Can the human mind accomidate a new organ? that will designed to function with a new abilities if its harwired to the brain? Can the brain learn to work with this new organ? Can stem cell or cloning help in this issue?
Speculation: Can we create new Organs? that which are not exisiting? If so what New organs do the humans body can be or needs one?

Computer software

Computer software, or just software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some task on a computer system.[1]

Types of software

Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred.

System software

System software helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes:

(these things need not be distinct)

The purpose of systems software is to unburden the applications programmer from the details of the particular computer complex being used, including such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc. And also to partition the computer’s resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner.

Device driver

In computing, a device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device.

A driver typically communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware is connected. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device. Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardware-dependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface.

Utility software

Utility software (also known as service program, service routine, tool, or utility routine) is computer software designed to help manage and tune the computer hardware, operating system or application software by performing a single task or a small range of tasks. Some utility software has been integrated into most major operating systems.

== Examples == look

    • Disk defragmenters can detect computer files whose contents are stored on the hard disk in disjointed fragments, and move the fragments together to increase efficiency.
    • Disk checkers can scan the contents of a hard disk to find files or areas that are corrupted in some way, or were not correctly saved, and eliminate them for a more efficiently operating hard drive.
    • Disk cleaners can find files that are unnecessary to computer operation, or take up considerable amounts of space. Disk cleaner helps the user to decide what to delete when their hard disk is full.
    • Disk partitioners can divide an individual drive into multiple logical drives, each with its own filesystem which can be mounted by the operating system and treated as an individual drive.
    • Backup utilities can make a copy of all information stored on a disk, and restore either the entire disk (e.g. in an event of disk failure) or selected files (e.g. in an event of accidental deletion).
    • Disk compression utilities can transparently compress/uncompress the contents of a disk, increasing the capacity of the disk.
    • File managers provide a convenient method of performing routine data management tasks, such as deleting, renaming, cataloging, uncataloging, moving, copying, merging, generating and modifying data sets.
    • Archive utilities output a stream or a single file when provided with a directory or a set of files. Archive utilities, unlike archive suites, usually do not include compression or encryption capabilities. Some archive utilities may even have a separate un-archive utility for the reverse operation.
  • System profilers provide detailed information about the software installed and hardware attached to the computer.
  • Anti-virus utilities scan for computer viruses.
  • Text and Hex/ Editors directly modify the text or data of a file. These files could be data or an actual program.
  • Data compression utilities output a shorter stream or a smaller file when provided with a stream or file.
  • Cryptographic utilities encrypt and decrypt streams and files.
  • Launcher applications provide a convenient access point for application software.
  • Registry cleaners clean and optimize the Windows registry by removing old registry keys that are no longer in use.
  • Network managers check the computer’s network, log events and check data transfer.

Operating system

Operating system (commonly abbreviated to either OS or O/S) is an interface between hardware and user; it is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the limited resources of the computer. The operating system acts as a host for applications that are run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications. Almost all computers, including handheld computers, desktop computers, supercomputers, and even video game consoles, use an operating system of some type. Some of the oldest models may however use an embedded operating system, that may be contained on a compact disk or other data storage device.

Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users. Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls. By invoking these interfaces, the application can request a service from the operating system, pass parameters, and receive the results of the operation. Users may also interact with the operating system with some kind of software user interface (UI) like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI, commonly pronounced “gooey”). For hand-held and desktop computers, the user interface is generally considered part of the operating system. On large multi-user systems like Unix and Unix-like systems, the user interface is generally implemented as an application program that runs outside the operating system. (Whether the user interface should be included as part of the operating system is a point of contention.)

Common contemporary operating systems include Mac OS, Windows, Linux, BSD and Solaris. While servers generally run on Unix or Unix-like systems, embedded device markets are split amongst several operating systems.[1][2]

How Your Brain Works

by Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D.

Freudenrich, Ph.D., Craig.  “How Your Brain Works.”  06 June 2001.  HowStuffWorks.com. <http://health.howstuffworks.com/brain.htm>  14 May 2009.

Inside this Article

  1. Introduction to How Your Brain Works
  2. Neuron Structure
  3. Basic Neuron Types
  1. Brain Parts
  2. Fish Brain?
  3. Lower Brain
  4. See more »
    1. Balancing Act
    2. Higher Brains
    3. Hard-wired
    4. Water on the Brain
    5. Lots More Information
    6. See all Brain & Central Nervous System articles

Our Brain: The Brain Stem
Our Brain: The Brain Stem
Play Video

Brain Image Gallery

brain

The human brain.
See more brain pictures.

Every animal you can think of — mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians — has a brain. But the human brain is unique. It gives us the power to think, plan, speak, imagine… It is truly an amazing organ.

The brain performs an incredible number of tasks:­

  • ­It controls body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and breathing.
  • It accepts a flood of information about the world around you from your various senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, etc).
  • It handles physical motion when walking, talking, standing or sitting.
  • It lets you think, dream, reason and experience emotions.

All of these tasks are coordinated, controlled and regulated by an organ that is about the size of a small head of cauliflower: your brain.

­Your brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves make up a complex, integrated information-processing and control system. The scientific study of the brain and nervous system is called neuroscience or neurobiology. Because the field of neuroscience is so vast, and the brain and nervous system so complex, this article will start at the beginning and give you an overview of this amazing organ.

­In this article, we will examine the structures of the brain and what each one does. With this general overview of the brain, you will be able to understand concepts such as motor control, visual processing, auditory processing, sensation, learning, memory and emotions­, which we will cover in detail in future articles.­

Hard-wired

The brain is “hard-wired” with connections, much like a skyscraper or airplane is hard-wired with electrical wiring. In the case of the brain, the connections are made by neurons that connect the sensory inputs and motor outputs with centers in the various lobes of the cortex. There are also connections between these cortical centers and other parts of the brain.

Several areas of the cerebrum have specialized functions:

  • Parietal lobe – The parietal lobe receives and processes all somatosensory input from the body (touch, pain).
    • Fibers from the spinal cord are distributed by the thalamus to various parts of the parietal lobe.
    • The connections form a map of the body’s surface on the parietal lobe. This map is called a homunculus.
    • The homunculus looks rather strange because the representation of each area is related to the number of sensory neuronal connections, not the physical size of the area. (See What Does Your “Homunculus” Look Like? Mapping Your Brain for details on how to determine your own homunculus.)
brain-homunculus.gif
Homunculus, a sensory map of your body. The homunculus looks rather strange because the representation of each area is related to the number of sensory neuronal connections, not the physical size of the area.
  • The rear of the parietal lobe (next to the temporal lobe) has a section called Wernicke’s area, which is important for understanding the sensory (auditory and visual) information associated with language. Damage to this area of the brain produces what is called sensory aphasia, in which patients cannot understand language but can still produce sounds.

Frontal lobe – The frontal lobe is involved in motor skills (including speech) and cognitive functions. The motor center of the brain (pre-central gyrus) is located in the rear of the frontal lobe, just in front of the parietal lobe. It receives connections from the somatosensory portion in the parietal lobe and processes and initiates motor functions. Like the homunculus in the parietal lobe, the pre-central gyrus has a motor map of the brain (for details, see A Science Odyssey: You Try It – Probe the Brain Activity). An area on the left side of the frontal lobe, called Broca’s area, processes language by controlling the muscles that make sounds (mouth, lips and larynx). Damage to this area results in motor aphasia, in which patients can understand language but cannot produce meaningful or appropriate sounds. Remaining areas of the frontal lobe perform associative processes (thought, learning, memory). Your browser does not support JavaScript or it is disabled. Diagram highlighting the functional areas of the brain Occipital lobe – The occipital lobe receives and processes visual information directly from the eyes and relates this information to the parietal lobe (Wernicke’s area) and motor cortex (frontal lobe). One of the things it must do is interpret the upside-down images of the world that are projected onto the retina by the lens of the eye. Temporal lobe – The temporal lobe processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernicke’s area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe. Insula – The insula influences automatic functions of the brainstem. For example, when you hold your breath, impulses from your insula suppress the medulla’s breathing centers. The insula also processes taste information. Hippocampus – The hippocampus is located within the temporal lobe and is important for short-term memory. Amygdala – The amygdala is located within the temporal lobe and controls social and sexual behavior and other emotions. Basal ganglia – The basal ganglia work with the cerebellum to coordinate fine motions, such as fingertip movements. Limbic system – The limbic system is important in emotional behavior and controlling movements of visceral muscles (muscles of the digestive tract and body cavities).

How does the brain create an uninterrupted view of the world?

by Julia Layton

Please copy/paste the following text to properly cite this HowStuffWorks article:

Layton, Julia.  “How does the brain create an uninterrupted view of the world?.”  15 November 2006.  HowStuffWorks.com. <http://health.howstuffworks.com/steady-view.htm>  14 May 2009.

Inside this Article

  1. Introduction to How does the brain create an uninterrupted view of the world?
  2. Parts of the Brain

Stronger Brains
Stronger Brains
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steady-view-ch.jpg
See more brain pictures.

­If you’ve ever made your own movie using a camcorder, you’ve probably noticed that the picture can be pretty shaky as you move from one image to the next. In all but the steadiest hands, there’s an unstable transition between one focused object and the next. But for most of us, our eyes — the video cameras of our brain, if you will — suffer no unstable transition as they move quickly over a scene. The world remains stable no matter how quickly or erratically we change our focus.

Scientists have known about and even understood this phenomenon for decades. To achieve a stable view despite quick eye movements, the eyes do an amazing thing: They take before and after shots of every focused image and compare them in order to confirm stability. That sounds a little complicated, but the process itself is pretty straightforward (and ingenious): Before your eyes actually sense an object, your brain takes its own picture of that object for comparison purposes. It knows where your eyes are going to move next, and it forms an image of the object that precedes our conscious, visual perception of it. Then, when our eyes do perceive that object in a sensory way (meaning we can see it), our brain has already laid the framework for a smooth transition. There’s no shakiness and no instability. The brain has anticipated what our eyes are going to see, and it uses that anticipatory image for comparison to make sure the world has indeed remained stable in the split-second between the before shot and the after shot.

So the process is in the books. But scientists have spent at least 50 years trying to find out how the brain manages this feat. A study published in the online edition of the journal Nature offers insight into the mechanism that lets our brain see what our eyes are going to see before our eyes even see it. Scientists believe they have found a neural pathway that may explain the brain’s anticipation of our eye movements. (Neurons are the message carriers in the brain. They form pathways that carry signals from one part of the brain to another.)

Before we can understand exactly how this process works, we need to know a little about the various parts of the brain. Read on to learn more.

Parts of the Brain

Before we get to the pathway itself, let’s define a few of the major brain areas the study reports as being involved in conveying the information:

  • Midbrain: The midbrain links the parts of the brain that control motor functions and voluntary ear and eye actions.
brain-internal-parts.gif
  • Thalamus: The thalamus receives sensory information (coming in from the ears and eyes) and passes it on to the area of the brain that handles that particular sensory data. It also assists in the exchange of motor (movement) information between various parts of the brain.
brain-brainstem.gif
  • Motor cortex: The motor cortex is involved in controlling voluntary movements, like eye movements.

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The thalamus is located in the somatic sensory cortex, and the motor cortex is in the frontal lobe. The visual cortex delivers data to the sensory cortex telling it what our eyes are perceiving, and the sensory cortex interprets it.

What the study discovered is a pathway between the motor cortex and the visual cortex that activates visual neurons before the eye itself actually moves. According to one of the study’s authors, Marc Sommer of the University of Pittsburgh, a signal from the motor cortex tells the visual cortex to shift its focus to where the eye is planning to move next. This neural pathway starts in the midbrain, which has access to data from the motor cortex related to eye movement.

This data indicates what the eye is about to do next — it’s a copy of the signal the motor cortex is sending to the visual cortex to tell the eye to move. Neurons in the midbrain pass that information on to the thalamus, which sends the information to neurons in the visual cortex, telling them to shift their “perception window” to match the upcoming command. The new, unperceived image from the shifted window arrives at the somatic sensory cortex, where it is soon joined by the visual image perceived by that same shift a moment later. When the somatic sensory cortex interprets the visual signal coming in from the primary visual cortex, it compares it to the prior view of the same scene. As long as both views are the same, it interprets “stability” and simply filters out any shakiness in the transition from one visual image to another.

The study’s authors expect this finding to lead to further understanding of other uninterrupted sensory transitions, such as the constant perception of sound that occurs even as you turn your head in different directions.

How Vision Works

by Carl Bianco, MD

Bianco, Carl.  “How Vision Works.”  01 April 2000.  HowStuffWorks.com. <http://health.howstuffworks.com/eye.htm>  14 May 2009.

Inside this Article

  1. Introduction to How Vision Works
  2. Basic Anatomy
  3. Perceiving Light
  1. Color Vision


glasses
flashfilm/Getty Images
Although small in size, the eye is a very complex organ.
It’s no accident that the main function of the sun at the center of our solar system is to provide light. Light is what drives life. It’s hard to imagine our world and life without it.

The sensing of light by living things is almost universal. Plants use light through photosynthesis to grow. Animals use light to hunt their prey or to sense and escape from predators.

Related Articles

­Some say that it is the development of stereoscopic vision, along with the development of the large human brain and the freeing of hands from locomotion, that have allowed humans to evolve to such a high level.

In this article, we’ll discuss the amazing inner workings of the human eye!

Perceiving Light

When light enters the eye, it first passes through the cornea, then the aqueous humor, lens and vitreous humor. Ultimately it reaches the retina, which is the light-sensing structure of the eye. The retina contains two types of cells, called rods and cones. Rods handle vision in low light, and cones handle color vision and detail. When light contacts these two types of cells, a series of complex chemical reactions occurs. The chemical that is formed (activated rhodopsin) creates electrical impulses in the optic nerve. Generally, the outer segment of rods are long and thin, whereas the outer segment of cones are more, well, cone shaped. Below is an example of a rod and a cone:

vision4.gif

The outer segment of a rod or a cone contains the photosensitive chemicals. In rods, this chemical is called rhodopsin; in cones, these chemicals are called color pigments. The retina contains 100 million rods and 7 million cones. The retina is lined with black pigment called melanin — just as the inside of a camera is black — to lessen the amount of reflection. The retina has a central area, called the macula, that contains a high concentration of only cones. This area is responsible for sharp, detailed vision.

When light enters the eye, it comes in contact with the photosensitive chemical rhodopsin (also called visual purple). Rhodopsin is a mixture of a protein called scotopsin and 11-cis-retinal — the latter is derived from vitamin A (which is why a lack of vitamin A causes vision problems). Rhodopsin decomposes when it is exposed to light because light causes a physical change in the 11-cis-retinal portion of the rhodopsin, changing it to all-trans retinal. This first reaction takes only a few trillionths of a second. The 11-cis-retinal is an angulated molecule, while all-trans retinal is a straight molecule. This makes the chemical unstable. Rhodopsin breaks down into several intermediate compounds, but eventually (in less than a second) forms metarhodopsin II (activated rhodopsin). This chemical causes electrical impulses that are transmitted to the brain and interpreted as light. Here is a diagram of the chemical reaction we just discussed:

vision5.gif

Activated rhodopsin causes electrical impulses in the following way:

  1. The cell membrane (outer layer) of a rod cell has an electric charge. When light activates rhodopsin, it causes a reduction in cyclic GMP, which causes this electric charge to increase. This produces an electric current along the cell. When more light is detected, more rhodopsin is activated and more electric current is produced.
  2. This electric impulse eventually reaches a ganglion cell, and then the optic nerve.
  3. The nerves reach the optic chasm, where the nerve fibers from the inside half of each retina cross to the other side of the brain, but the nerve fibers from the outside half of the retina stay on the same side of the brain.
  4. These fibers eventually reach the back of the brain (occipital lobe). This is where vision is interpreted and is called the primary visual cortex. Some of the visual fibers go to other parts of the brain to help to control eye movements, response of the pupils and iris, and behavior.

Eventually, rhodopsin needs to be re-formed so that the process can recur. The all-trans retinal is converted to 11-cis-retinal, which then recombines with scotopsin to form rhodopsin to begin the process again when exposed to light.

Color Vision

The color-responsive chemicals in the cones are called cone pigments and are very similar to the chemicals in the rods. The retinal portion of the chemical is the same, however the scotopsin is replaced with photopsins. Therefore, the color-responsive pigments are made of retinal and photopsins. There are three kinds of color-sensitive pigments:

  • Red-sensitive pigment
  • Green-sensitive pigment
  • Blue-sensitive pigment

Each cone cell has one of these pigments so that it is sensitive to that color. The human eye can sense almost any gradation of color when red, green and blue are mixed.

vision6.gif

In the diagram above, the wavelengths of the three types of cones (red, green and blue) are shown. The peak absorbancy of blue-sensitive pigment is 445 nanometers, for green-sensitive pigment it is 535 nanometers, and for red-sensitive pigment it is 570 nanometers.

2 comments
  1. Gopinath said:

    Wow!!!
    IT is Really Great to see Science this way.

  2. Anonymous said:

    I think this is among the most important info for
    me. And i am glad reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The site style is great, the articles is really great : D.
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